By John M. Last
Dictionary making by no means ends simply because languages are consistently altering. wide-spread in the course of the global, this e-book will proceed to function the normal English-language dictionary of epidemiology in its Fourth variation. It covers the entire universal phrases utilized in epidemiology and plenty of from comparable fields comparable to biostatistics, infectious sickness regulate, well-being advertising, genetics, scientific epidemiology, wellbeing and fitness economics, and clinical ethics. The definitions are transparent and concise, yet there's area for a few short essays and discussions of the provenance of significant phrases. backed by way of the foreign Epidemiological organization, the dictionary represents the consensus of epidemiologists in lots of assorted nations. the entire definitions have been reviewed again and again via a global community of individuals from each significant department of epidemiology. they're authoritative with no being authoritarian. The Fourth variation comprises good over a hundred and fifty new entries and huge revisions of concerning the similar variety of definitions, plus a dozen new illustrations. a number of the new phrases relate to equipment utilized in environmental and medical epidemiology.
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Extra info for A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 4th edition
The actual and the specular distribution, and some assumptions, including a rare-disease assumption, a relative risk estimate for the effect of exposure can be calculated, much as it can for a case control study, albeit with different assumptions. 1 l Zaffanella L E, et al. 1 ^uissa S. The case-time-control design. Epidemiology 1995; 6:248 CASUISTRY A method of decision making, especially in ethics, based on experience with and decisions about similar cases in the past. This contrasts with ethical decision making that is based on ethical principles.
BOOTSTRAP A technique for estimating the variance and the bias of an estimator by repeatedly drawing random samples with replacement from the observations at hand. One applies the estimator to each sample drawn, thus obtaining a set of estimates. The observed variance of this set is the bootstrap estimate of variance. The difference between the average of the set of estimates and the original estimate is the bootstrap estimate of bias. BOX-AND-WHISKERS PLOT (Syn: box plot) A graphical method of presenting the distribution of a variable measured on a numerical scale.
BIMODAL DISTRIBUTION A distribution with two regions of high frequency separated by a region of low frequency of observations. A two-peak distribution. , on or off, 0 or 1. , presence or absence of a clinical or laboratory sign, death or survival. The probability distribution of the number of occurrences of a binary event in a sample of n independent observations. The binomial distribution is used to model CUMULATIVE INCIDENCE rates and PREVALENCE RATE. The BERNOULLI DISTRIBUTION is a special case of the binomial distribution with n = 1.