By N.F. Krasnov

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**Extra info for Aerodynamics: Fundamentals of Theory, Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and Wing; Methods of Aerodynamic Calculation**

**Sample text**

These relations are used to find the coefficients C 2 and m 2 , respectively, converted to the new characteristic dimensions 8 2 and L 2 : c2 = c1 (8 1 /8 2 ), m2 = m 1 (8 1 L 1 /8 2L 2 ) where the previous dimensions 8 1 , L1 and aerodynamic coefficients c1 ' m 1 , as well as the new dimensions 8 2 , L2 are known. Polar of a Craft. A very important aerodynamic characteristic that has found widespread use is what is known as the polar of a craft. It establishes a relation between the lift and drag forces or, which is the same, between the lift and drag coefficients in a flight path coordinate system.

Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and a Wing Fig. t Action of pressure and friction '(shear) forces on an elementary . area SIJ force 1: dS. The sum of the projeetions of these forces onto the x-axis ,of a wind (flight path) coordinate system is (Fig. 1) where nand t are a normal and a tangent to the element of area, respectively. The other two projections onto the axes Ya and Za are obtained by a similar formula with the corresponding cosines. 1) over the entire surface S. 4) (8) We can choose a random surface area such as that of a wing in .

12) holds for it. 10'). Boundary Layer. 10) that for the same fluid flowing over a body, the shear stress at different sections of the flow is not the same and is determined by the magnitude of the local velocity gradient. Investigations show that the velocity gradient is the largest near a wall because a viscous fluid experiences a retarding action owing to its adhering to the surface of the body in the fluid. The velocity of the flow is zero at the wall (see Fig. 4) and gradually increases with the distance from the surface.