By Denis Howe
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This e-book represents a number of many years of knowledge assortment, examine, conversations with diverse airframe experts, plus the author's greater than twenty years' adventure in airframe structural layout. From structural viewpoint, the e-book is meant for use as a device to assist in attaining structural integrity in response to executive laws, necessities, standards, and so on.
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Additional info for Aircraft Loading and Structural Layout (Aerospace Series (PEP))
Application of Eqn. (1 . 2) cos a U , = V cos a cos p V, = V s i n /3 W, = V s i n a c o s p It is sometimes useful to use the inverse of the matrix D: + cos JICOS i? % @ cos 0cos $ Similar transformations may be applied to other parameters, for example the angular rates p, q, and r about the body axes in terms of the rates of change 4, 8,and 4 defined in terms of the earth axes. 2 Inertial characteristics The inenial characteristics are the mass, the centre of gravity and the moments and products of inertia.
25 but this may he reduced or removed when flight test data become available. In some cases it is also necessary to assume a very severe distribution of air-load across the chord, especially when the surface incorporates a horn balance. Aircraft loading and structural layout (b) It may be advisable to apply a factor to the predicted values of the wing-body zero-lift pitching moment coefficient i n the various high-lift device configurations or to establish a minimum value for loading calculations.
The damage tolerance approach recognizes this and seeks to predict the rate of growth of such damage as well as incorporating design features to delay the propagation of cracks. Such an approach is obviously psychologically advantageous and can often be incorporated with little weight penalty. In practice the degree of tolerable damage is determined by the rate of crack propagation relative to inspection intervals. Transport aircraft normally adopt a damage tolerant philosophy. 5 Practical structural life design procedure Although the emphasis may vary it should be pointed out that any properly designed structure will possess both damage tolerance and safe life features as there are some parts of the aircraft where it is virtually impossible to incorporate fail-safe concepts.