By Gary Haynes
The quantity includes summaries of proof, theories, and unsolved difficulties concerning the unexplained extinction of dozens of genera of in most cases huge terrestrial mammals, which happened ca. 13,000 calendar years in the past in North the United States and approximately 1,000 years later in South the USA. one other both mysterious wave of extinctions affected huge Caribbean islands round 5,000 years in the past. The coupling of those extinctions with the earliest visual appeal of people has ended in the advice that foraging people are responsible, even though significant climatic shifts have been additionally occurring within the Americas in the course of the various extinctions. The final released quantity with comparable (but now not exact) issues -- Extinctions in close to Time -- seemed in 1999; because then loads of leading edge, intriguing new learn has been performed yet has no longer but been compiled and summarized. diversified chapters during this quantity supply in-depth resumés of the chronology of the extinctions in North and South the United States, the prospective insights into animal ecology supplied by means of experiences of reliable isotopes and anatomical/physiological features equivalent to progress increments in great and mastodont tusks, the clues from taphonomic study approximately large-mammal biology, the functions of courting ways to the extinctions debate, and archeological controversies referring to human searching of huge mammals.
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Additional resources for American megafaunal extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene
Fiedel Is Climate Change a Credible Cause of Megafauna Extinction? Before the 1990s, advocates of climate change as the cause of megafauna extinction envisioned a stark dichotomy of two successive climate extremes (cold Pleistocene vs. warm Holocene), with a gradual transition at about 10,000 BP. , 1997), pointed to the change to less equable climate in the early Holocene – warmer summers, colder winters – as a cause of vegetation change and faunal extinction. However, our understanding of late Pleistocene climate change has been profoundly altered in the last decade by new data from the Greenland ice core projects (GISP2, GRIP, and NGRIP).
1998). Steadman et al. , 2004). Four dates of ca. , 2004). , 2001 vs. , 2001). The appearance of fluted or pseudo-fluted fishtail (Fell I) points in Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego about 11,000–10,700 BP (Flegenheimer and Zarate, 1997) signals the arrival of Clovis-descended Paleoindians around 12,900 cal bp. The earliest of the most precise (1-sigma < 100), internally consistent radiocarbon dates from good stratigraphic contexts for Fell I assemblages in southernmost South America (Miotti and Salemme, 2003) are: Piedra Museo Tres Arroyos Cerro Tres Tetas Cueva Casa del Minero 11,000 ± 65 (AA-27950) 10,925 ± 65 (OxA 8528) 11,085 ± 70 (OxA 9248) 10,915 ± 65 (AA-22233) 10,999 ± 55 (AA-37207) 10,967 ± 55 (AA-37208) 31 At first glance, these dates are as early as the best-dated Clovis sites in North America (ca.
Apparently good associations of artifacts with megafauna bones have been reported from several South American sites. ) burned bones, 10,190 ± 120 (AA-19291) and 10,440 ± 100 (AA-39363). ) ca. , 2007); equid, species unidentified; dates on associated charcoal and wood, 10,920 ± 80 (Beta-194725) 11,060 ± 80 (Beta-215090), 11,090 ± 80 (Beta-215089) Apart from these, there are two stratified sequences of ground sloth dung in caves of the Southern Cone that are analogous to the sites in the southwestern US where abrupt cessation occurs in the absence of any evidence of human activity.