By Zana Lane
This ebook is a whole package deal for wisdom sharing on Antenna know-how. desk of Contents bankruptcy 1 - Dipole Antenna bankruptcy 2 - Horn Antenna bankruptcy three - Radio Telescope bankruptcy four - Parabolic Antenna bankruptcy five - Antenna (Radio) bankruptcy 6 - tv Antenna bankruptcy 7 - Radio Masts and Towers bankruptcy eight - Omnidirectional Antenna & Directional Antenna
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Until then wireless radiating transmitting and receiving elements were known simply as aerials or terminals. Marconi's use of the word antenna (Italian for pole) would become a popular term for what today is uniformly known as the antenna. In common usage, the word antenna may refer broadly to an entire assembly including support structure, enclosure (if any), etc. in addition to the actual functional components. Especially at microwave frequencies, a receiving antenna may include not only the actual electrical antenna but an integrated preamplifier and/or mixer.
This means that the types of antennas that are used as radio telescopes vary widely in design, size, and configuration. At wavelengths of 30 meters to 3 meters (10 MHz - 100 MHz), they are generally either directional antenna arrays similar to "TV antennas" or large stationary reflectors with moveable focal points. Since the wavelengths being observed with these types of antennas are so long, the "reflector" surfaces can be constructed from coarse wire mesh such as chicken wire. At shorter wavelengths “dish” style radio telescopes predominate.
Beamwidth C-band Satellite dish, Bucharest, Romania The angular width of the beam radiated by high-gain antennas is measured by the halfpower beam width (HPBW), which is the angular separation between the points on the antenna radiation pattern at which the power drops to one-half (-3 dB) its maximum value. For parabolic antennas, the HPBW θ is given by: where k is a factor which depends on the shape of the reflector and the feed illumination pattern. For a "typical" parabolic antenna k = 70 when θ is in degrees.