Biomedical Applications of Immobilized Enzymes and Proteins: by T. M. S. Chang (auth.), Thomas Ming Swi Chang M.D., PH.D.,

By T. M. S. Chang (auth.), Thomas Ming Swi Chang M.D., PH.D., F.R.C.P.(C) (eds.)

I) ADSORPTION EEEEEEEE E E provider 2) COVALENT LINKAGE a) Insoluble aid b) Intermolecular linkage N'E~ ~~ c) Soluble help zero \:)....m three) tM TRIX (MOLECULAR) ENTRAPMENT ~~~~~;;..,J~-polymer matrix four) ENCAPSULATION membrane determine I. class of immobilized enzymes. Covalently associated, adsorbed, and matrix-entrapped enzymes characterize level II, learn at the microenvironment. Microencapsulation represents level III, study at the intracellular setting. additional subdivision of microencapsulated enzymes may be present in bankruptcy 12. four T. M. S. CHANG matrix entrapment. during this part, exact discussions will middle on medical research, urine research, tracking of environmental toxins, radioimmune assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, enzyme electrodes, and different techniques related to immobilized enzymes, antibodies, and antigens. within the ultimate part, learn staff describe and talk about the views of immobilized enzymes and proteins. right here, they speculate at the destiny power of attainable techniques, even if those would possibly not were widely studied or confirmed on the laboratory level. The biomedical purposes of enzymes and proteins, specially within the thera­ peutic sector, is in a really early level of improvement. a lot is still explored and studied, and the world is extensive open for investigators attracted to unique examine in a brand new interdisciplinary region. References Chang, T. M. S., 1972, man made Cells, Charles C. Thomas, writer, Springfield, in poor health. Dunlop, R. B. (ed.), 1974, Immobilized Biochemicals and Affinity ChrOTIULtography, Plenum Press, N ew York.

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1975). Glutaraldehyde appears to be the favored reagent as a "fixative" for proteins. It is implied in this assessment that this reagent frequently is used in large excess to accomplish extensive modification. As seen from Table 1, it has also been used for limited cross-linking in soluble proteins, and it is notable that in the case of glycogen phosphorylase (Wang and Tu, 1969), a cross-linked derivative with increased stability toward heat and denaturants was obtained after reaction with glutaraldehyde.

ZABORSKY Introduction A very versatile chemical method for immobilizing enzymes and other proteins is intermolecular cross-linking with multifunctional reagents. The method can produce enzyme conjugates of diverse physical character depending on the conditions employed. Thus, conjugates can be prepared that are water-soluble or waterinsoluble; granular, gel-like, or filamentous in nature; or that are pure protein. It is reliable and inexpensive. The underlying principle of the method is the formation of covalent bonds between molecules of the enzyme and the reagent to give a three-dimensional, cross-linked network.

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. Waterman et al. (1975) Lubin et al. (1975) Lockhart and Smith (1975) Young and Blumenthal (1975) Van Driel and Van Bruggen (1975) Ottesen and Svensson (1971) Josephs et aI. (1973) Wang and Tu (1969) Beaven and Gratzer (1973) Snyder et al. (1974) Brandenburg (1972) 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. Busse and Carpenter (1974) Busse et al. (1974) Lindsay (1971) Shaltiel and Tauber-Finkelstein (1971) Matthyssens and Verheulpen (1973) Grow and Fried (1975) Husain and Lowe (1968) Husain and Lowe (1970) Husain et al.

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