By Michael J.S. Tevesz, Peter L. McCall
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Extra resources for Biotic Interactions in Recent and Fossil Benthic Communities
And Mcintyre, A. , 1971, Methods for the Study of Marine Benthos, Blackwell, Oxford. , and Heard, R. , 1977, Biogenic sedimentary structures formed by rays, f. Sediment. Petrol. 47:339-346. Howell, B. , 1962, Worms, in: Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part W, Miscellanea (R. C. ], pp. W144-W177, Geological Society of America, New York. Jackson, J. B. , 1977, Competition on marine hard substrata: The adaptive significance of solitary and colonial strategies, Am. Nat. 111:743-767. Jumars, P.
One such burrowing predator group is the naticid gastropods whose drill holes are identifiable (Berg and Nishenko, 1975) but naticids do not appear until the Early Mesozoic (Vermeij, 1977). In summary, predators were present in the Paleozoic. At least shallow-digging predators, burrowing infaunal predators, and weasel predators were present as were surface predators. Given the evidence, it is difficult to say how important they were as factors determining the distributions and abundances of infaunal organisms.
If predators were important in the Paleozoic (surface predators such as arthropods at least appear to have been present in relatively large numbers), then refuges from such predators may also have been important. As today, depth in sediment must have been available as a refuge. Bivalves may not, however, have been able to exploit it as successfully as today because mantle fusion did not occur commonly until later (see Stanley, 1975). Failure of the bivalves with mantle fusion to spark a radiation in the Middle and Late Paleozoic may suggest that few of the predators could Biotic Interactions in Recent Marine Sedimentary Environments 27 dig very far into the sediment (see Stanley, 1975; Vermeij, 1977; Thayer, 1979).