By L. Pitaevskii, S. Stringari
This publication is an introductory textual content to the physics of Bose-Einstein condensation. This phenomenon, first expected through Einstein in 1925 has been learned experimentally in 1995 in a outstanding sequence of experiments whose significance has been well-known by way of the award of the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physics. The condensate is absolutely a brand new nation of topic, the place quantum-mechanical wave services of atoms behave as coherent subject waves within the related means as coherent gentle waves with regards to a laser. The authors offer a theoretical presentation of the most options underlying the physics of dilute atomic gases in stipulations of tremendous low temperatures the place quantum results play a vital function. the most attempt is dedicated to dialogue of the correct theoretical points exhibited by way of those systms, comparable to the idea that of order parameter, lengthy variety order, superfluidity and coherence. The mathematical formalism is gifted in a kind handy for functional use. The ebook develops the speculation of Bose gases ranging from the pioneering Bogoliubov strategy and provides specific emphasis to the hot actual gains exhibited by way of non-uniform gases that are produced within the contemporary experiments with magnetic and optical traps. those beneficial properties contain the choice of the equilibrium profiles, the collective oscillations, the mechanism of the growth of the gasoline after liberating the catch, the interference styles received via overlapping condensates, the rotational houses revealing the results of superfluidity the Josephson-like phenomena assocaited with the coherence of the section, the past suggest box phenomena exhibited by means of quantum gases in stipulations of decreased dimensionality. The ebook additionally discusses the alaogies and changes with the physics of ""classical"" superfluids like liquid helium and introduces the various significant gains of trapped Fermi gases at low temperature, declaring the implications of superfluidity.
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Additional info for Bose-Einstein Condensation
The noise effect annoyed them, especially at res •. Beginning with the third to fourth days of the experiment the physician reported ear blockage and hearing loss which he observed during auscultation and arterial blood pressure measurements. By the second month of the experiment, the test subjects developed a kind of adjustment; however, they failed to adapt completely to the noise effects until the very end of the experiment. It is interesting to note that an insignificant increase of the sound level to which the test subjects had adapted was perceived as a sharp elevation of the loudness level.
Representative changes of blood pressure during lower body negative pressure (LBNP) testing, preflight and postflight (2 hr after recovery). 140 130 120 SYSTOLIC lIO 100 BLOOD PRESSURE, mm Hg 90 BO DIASTOLIC 70 ---PREFLIGHT MEAN -POSTFLIGHT. 5 HOURS 60 50 0 10 TIME, MINUTES Fig. 16. - hr after recovery). SUMMARY OF MEDICAL EXPERIENCE IN THE APOLLO 7-11 27 MANNED SPACEFLIGHTS Program. Calf circumference changes were measured during LBNP testing in the 9 crewmembers from the Apollo 7 through 9 missions.
Hearing variations changed distinctly from individual to individual. The masking thresholds, air conduction, were about 35 to 40 dB in the most stable test subject and about 50 to 65 dB in the least stable one. The three subjects displayed a positive recruitment phenomenon. According to the audiometry data, the year-long experiment can be conditionally divided into three periods: First period (2 months) - characterized by an increase of the masking thresholds and differential thresholds of sound intensity and frequency.