By Stanley P Cauvain
Textual content sums up fresh study at the advanced adjustments focused on bread making and the way the effect the various qualities shoppers use to outline caliber. Discusses wheat and flour caliber; the molecular constitution of dough; and the function of key components, corresponding to water. For researchers and practitioners. comprises index and references.
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There is also the property of retrogradation, which is much more evident with amylose than with amylopectin in aqueous solutions. Retrogradation follows the formation of hydrogen bonds between amylose molecules and water molecules. 4 is a simplified equation showing the release of water on storage from H-bonded amylose gels. This process is called syneresis. Bread making 36 Wheat starch is obtained by wet milling of white flour, preferably that from softer grade wheats. The ‘Martin Process’ and the ‘Batter Process’ are two such processes (Cornell and Hoveling, 1998).
As dough warms up it goes through a complex progression of physical, chemical and biochemical changes. Yeast activity decreases from 43°C and ceases by 55°C. Structural stability is maintained by the expansion of the trapped gases. Gelatinization of the starch starts at about 60°C and initially the starch granules absorb any free water in the dough. Alpha-amylase activity converts the starch into dextrins and then sugars and reaches its maximum activity between 60 and 70°C. The formation of a crust provides much of the strength of the finished loaf and the greater part of the flavour.
As water is driven off and the crust acquires its characteristic crispness and colour, flavour and aroma develop from the Maillard reactions, which start at temperatures above 115°C. The other contributor to crust formation is the continuing expansion of the inside of the dough piece from the final burst of carbon dioxide production from yeast fermentation and the thermal expansion of the gases trapped in the cellular structure of the dough. If the dough is contained in a pan then it can only expand upwards.