Fields and Waves in Communication Electronics , Third by John R. Whinnery, Theodore Van Duzer Simon Ramo

By John R. Whinnery, Theodore Van Duzer Simon Ramo

This finished revision starts off with a evaluation of static electrical and magnetic fields, delivering a wealth of effects invaluable for static and time-dependent fields difficulties within which the scale of the equipment is small in comparison with a wavelength. a number of the static effects similar to inductance of transmission strains calculations can be utilized for microwave frequencies. Familiarity with vector operations, together with divergence and curl, are built in context within the chapters on statics. filled with invaluable derivations and functions.

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7 Temperature Effects Because the op amp is constructed from semiconductor material, its behavior is subject to the same temperature effects that plague transistors, diodes, and other semiconductors. Reverse leakage currents, forward voltage drops, and the gain of internal transistors all vary with temperature. For now we will ignore these effects and conclude that an ideal op amp is unaffected by temperature changes. Whether we can ignore temperature effects in practice depends on the particular op amp, the application, and the operating environment.

Frequencies that are amplified to within 3 dB of the maximum output voltage level are considered as having passed the amplifier. Any frequency whose output voltage is lower than the maximum output voltage by more than 3 dB is considered to have been rejected by the amplifier. The frequency that separates the passband frequencies from the stopband frequencies is called the cutoff frequency. 5, the cutoff frequency is also called the half-power point on the frequency response curve. The bandwidth of an amplifier is measured between the two half-power points.

The ground and Vcc distribution buses are physically close and parallel, which lowers the inductance and radiation. One potential problem that you must be aware of with this type of board is that there is a significant amount of capacitance between the various connections on the board. The problems caused by this capacitance increase as the frequency increases and/or the signal amplitudes decrease. Boards of this type are generally best suited for low-frequency circuits. It should be noted, however, that most of the circuits presented in this text were constructed and tested on such a system with excellent results.

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