Central and East Africa: 1880 to the Present : From by Daniel E. Harmon

By Daniel E. Harmon

-- a chain that information the exploration, annexation, and improvement of the African continent by way of Europeans in the course of nineteenth century colonization and its results on modern day Africa -- Generously illustrated volumes with infrequent and strange photos from the files of the Royal Geographical Society

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At the same time, the whites clearly were “protecting” their own national interests. In the 1870s and 1880s, European governments fixed their attention squarely on Africa. “Protectionism,” not free trade, was on their minds. 47 Market, Mwanza, Tanganyika, 1923 Mwanza, a port city on Lake Victoria, thrived as a trading center. Since 1928 Mwanza has had a railroad link to Tabora and then to Dar es Salaam. The Sukuma are the principal Bantu-speaking people who live in the Mwanza region. This photograph was taken by G.

It is navigable only by small craft for about 60 miles inland. This photograph shows a river village and the overflow of the Ruvuma. The water “shield” failed, of course. Soon German reinforcements arrived in the region. Machine-guns mowed down hordes of charging black warriors. Thousands of natives died in the fighting and hundreds of thousands in the famine that occurred at the same period. German authorities, initially quick to apply force to keep the natives in check, now adopted less harsh policies.

Soldiers burned villages and devoured crops and cattle on which the Africans depended. Tens of thousands of East African blacks in service died of sickness and starvation. With its defeat in World War I, Germany lost its colonial holdings. Belgium took over Ruanda-Urundi in 1916, two years before the war’s end; Great Britain occupied Tanganyika. Ruanda-Urundi was designated a United Nations “mandate” territory in 1919 and a United Nations “trust” territory in 1946. A Belgian colonial administration governed this area of Ruanda, Urundi, and Tanganyika as part of the Belgian Congo from World War I until it became three separate nations in the early 1960s: Rwanda, Buganda, and Tanzania.

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