Chemical Endocrinology by Edward Frieden (Auth.)

By Edward Frieden (Auth.)

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The evidence for the existence of thyroxine and triiodothyronine in protochordates (amphioxus and tunicates) is more impressive. Amphioxus pos­ sesses an endostyle which serves as a thyroid anläge; in addition to con­ centrating iodine, this organ secretes a substance with the histochemical characteristics of thyroglobulin, the characteristic iodoprotein of the thyroid. Furthermore, implantation of amphioxus endostyles into axolotls will in­ duce metamorphosis, and the isolation of thyroxine from an extract of the endostyle region has been reported.

Pregnant mares excrete estrogens with additional unsaturation in ring Β—equilen (Fig. 3, VI) and equilenin (Fig. * Hydroxyestradiol6a (Fig. 3, VIII) has been found in the follicular fluid of pregnant mares. * H o w e v e r , H e a r d et al. (1956) s h o w e d that C - l a b e l e d estrone does not give rise to labeled 14 equilin or equilenin in horses. 52 5. T H E STEROID HORMONES Ο 1-Methylestradiol 6-Ketoestradiol (X) (XI) F i g . 3 Structures of some naturally occurring 17a-Ethinylestradiol (XII) estrogens and related compounds.

Assay Chemical methods are commonly employed for the determination of thyroid hormone concentrations in blood and other tissues. 05 μ% of iodine. R e ­ cently, the technique of competitive protein binding has been applied to the determination of thyroxine in nanogram amounts (Murphy, 1965). The protein used was thyroxine-binding globulin ( T B G ) , a plasma a-globulin which possesses a very high affinity for thyroxine. Serum for assay was deproteinized with alcohol; an aliquot of the thyroxine-containing superna­ tant was evaporated and the residue dissolved in a mixture of diluted pooled plasma and l - or l-labeled thyroxine.

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