By Jiro J Kaneko
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Extra info for Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals
T h e presence of T C A cycle activity in the lactating mammary gland of the cow has been firmly established by Black and Kleiber (1957). Through this mechanism, carbon atoms from acetate, derived from any source, appear in milk products ( F i g . 15). Thus, glucose carbon atoms may be given off as C O 2 , appear 44 J . J . ) Glucose ^ Pyruvate Acetate —y Fatty acid INADPHI CO2 'UDPGalactose Lactose MILK Fig. 15. Summary of some metabolic pathways in the mammary gland. in the amino acids of milk protein via transamination of O A A and c t - K G or appear in milk fat.
This method has been widely used and, unless specified, all values given in this chapter refer to "true" glucose values obtained by it. Another important consideration in the use of the Nelson-Somogyi method, particularly with ruminant bloods, is its lack of sensitivity at low concentration o f blood glucose. Below 40 mg%, this method underestimates glucose (Campbell and Kronfeld, 1961) up to 20% as compared to the glucose oxidase method. T h e glucose oxidase method is an even more specific method for blood glucose which employs 28 J .
A b o v e this level, glucose removal is greater than supply, and the balance is reversed when the blood glucose level is below 150 mg%. This effect may be partially due to a mass action effect but a greater degree of control ap pears to be exercised by insulin and the rate-limiting enzymic reactions in the liver. Madison (1969) presented evidence that insulin directly decreases liver glucose output and glycogenolysis and increases glucose uptake by the liver. This effect is likely to be secondary to the action of insulin enhancing glucokinase and glycogen synthetase activity.