Clinical Endocrinology: Theory and Practice by Professor Dr. med. Alexis Labhart (auth.)

By Professor Dr. med. Alexis Labhart (auth.)

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Norepinephrine, which is secreted at the nerve endings of the sympathetic nervous system. The neurosecretion of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the diencephalon is a mechanism having characteristics of both neural and hormonal communication. In this case, information flows along the axis cylinder of a nerve cell in the form of discontinuous signals. These signals are not Dissolved Hormone Extracellular water ....... "7EnzyV Membrane Effects - - " " h ~ Membrane -bound Permeabilrty Enzymes Transports A ~t I RNA DNA I Second messenger ""- Enzymes and other / ' Proteins MetabolItes ~ I RNA I I I \ t ,....

Rather, nucleotides, in particular guanosine triphosphate (GTP), greatly influence the response to a given hormone concentration (RODBELL, 1971 b, 1971 c). Secondly, the binding of labeled hormone is not entirely reversible even by a 1000-fold excess of unlabeled hormone and the dissociation of the hormone-receptor complex does not obey simple first-order kinetics (RODBELL, 1971 a). Both findings are contrary to conventional theory about action of hormones. Interesting compounds have been studied which specifically inhibit the response of the target organ to a number of hormones.

This has complicated the study of their chemical nature, but recently CUATRECASAS (1972) has succeeded in rendering insulin receptors of fat and liver cells soluble simply by treating the membranes with an non-ionic detergent. The soluble receptor turned out to be a protein, as had been predicted on the basis of the more indirect studies. Lipids are probably not an essential part in the function of this receptor. The estimated molecular weight was 300000. Proteins seem particularly suited to the task of receptors since they are capable of binding a great variety of substances ranging from simple ions to large macromolecules.

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