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Additional info for Combustion Instabilities in Gas Turbine Engines (Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics)
12) gives an excellent review on the modeling processes of premixed combustion–acoustic wave interaction. Based on analytical and experimental observations, it appears that the combustion process is increasingly sensitive to perturbation in the equivalence ratio φ under lean operating conditions. The second category of coupling mechanisms is often termed fuel–air wave coupling. Within this category are several submechanisms, which share a common interaction between a pressure oscillation and the local fuel–air ratio of the combustor.
More frequently, the pressure oscillation can also drive resonant vibrations in mechanical components, resulting in signiﬁcant hardware damage. A fundamental issue in designing gas-turbine combustors is the late stage of the development process at which combustion-dynamics phenomena become apparent. Many of the critical performance parameters of a combustor can be determined analytically or through a combination of analysis and component testing. Although some indication of the susceptibility of a combustion system to high levels of dynamics can sometimes be inferred from component tests, the behavior of the full system cannot be predicted on the basis of either analysis or component testing.
MONGIA ET AL. 7 Such fuel-distribution strategies generally deteriorate the nitrous oxide (NOx) emissions performance of the combustor, because they shift the ﬂame temperatures away from the ideal uniform distribution. Finally, combustion dynamics can be affected by the use of both passive- and active-control devices. The passive controls are typically Helmholtz resonators8 or quarter-wave tubes,5 and serve as damping devices in the oscillating system. These devices have demonstrated successful suppression of acoustics in gas-turbine combustors.