By RoseMarie Gallagher, Paul Ingram
This ebook meets the wishes of all scholars following the Cambridge IGCSE syllabus for Chemistry. up to date for the latest syllabus and the newest clinical advancements, it covers all features of the syllabus content material in an enticing and interesting layout for either local and non-native audio system of English. each one booklet is observed via a unfastened CD which gives a wealth of aid for college students, resembling functional investigations, perform exam-questions and revision advice. An accompanying Teacher's consultant and Revision advisor also are to be had. absolutely recommended by means of Cambridge foreign Examinations.
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Use the terms Rf and locating agent in your answer, and show that you understand what they mean. 1 Atoms and elements Atoms Sodium is made of tiny particles called sodium atoms. Diamond is made of carbon atoms – different from sodium atoms. Mercury is made of mercury atoms – different again! Atoms are the smallest particles of matter, that we cannot break down further by chemical means. Single atoms are far too small to see. Perhaps a million sodium atoms could fit in a line across this full stop.
You can describe any element in a short way like this: nucleon number symbol 16 For example: 8O The atoms of the first 20 elements In the Periodic Table, the elements are arranged in order of increasing proton number. Here are the first 20 elements, shown as a list: Element Symbol Proton number Electrons Neutrons Nucleon number (protons 1 neutrons) hydrogen H 1 1 0 1 helium He 2 2 2 4 lithium Li 3 3 4 7 beryllium Be 4 4 5 9 boron B 5 5 6 11 carbon C 6 6 6 12 nitrogen N 7 7 7 14 oxygen O 8 8 8 16 fluorine F 9 9 10 19 Ne 10 10 10 20 neon sodium Na 11 11 12 23 magnesium Mg 12 12 12 24 aluminium Al 13 13 14 27 silicon Si 14 14 14 28 phosphorus P 15 15 16 31 sulfur S 16 16 16 32 chlorine Cl 17 17 18 35 argon Ar 18 18 22 40 potassium K 19 19 20 39 calcium Ca 20 20 20 40 So the numbers of protons and electrons increase by 1 at a time – and are always equal.
The electron distribution for boron is 213. What is it for: a lithium? b magnesium? c hydrogen? 3 An element has 5 valency electrons. Which group is it in? 4 How many electron shells do atoms of Period 3 have? 5 The element krypton, Kr, is in Group 0, Period 4. Its proton number is 36. a Write down the electronic configuration for krypton. b What can you say about the reactivity of krypton? 37 Ato m s a n d e l e m e n t s How our model of the atom developed The two big ideas All chemistry depends on these two big ideas: everything is made of particles, and … atoms are the simplest particles of an element, that cannot be broken down in a chemical reaction.