By Laura J. Moriarty
Controversies in Victimology positive factors unique works of famous students and practitioners, aiming to make clear the debates over, the media cognizance on, and the psychology in the back of victimization. This ebook discusses the controversies from each side of the controversy, and makes an attempt to reconcile the problems in an effort to circulation the sector forward.Organized round topical parts, targeting 10 particular matters. educational specialists and execs in assorted fields study debatable matters.
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Additional info for Controversies in Victimology
Maryland Crime Victims’ Resource Center (2007). McMurry, K. (1997). ” Trial, (July):12-14, 16. Miranda v. S. 436 (1966). National Center for Victims of Crime (2007). dbID=DB_ Legislation138. Office of Justice Programs (2007). html. P. (1984). ” Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 75:361-387. P. (1998). J. A. ) Current Issues in Victimology, pp. 163-175. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press. Palko v. S. 319 (1937). Payne v. S. 808 (1991). Pointer v. S. 400 (1965). T. (1997). Crime and Criminology, Eighth Edition.
Researchers substantiate routine activities theory by demonstrating the correlation between exposure to risk and actual victimization; therefore, victims can (theoretically) reduce their chances of victimization by making themselves a less convenient target (sometimes referred to as target hardening). This perspective assumes that criminality is a product of rational thought processes as opposed to a series of random events. While victims may be able to make themselves a less attractive target for car theft by taking their keys out of their vehicle, it is less clear how victims of acquaintance rape or domestic violence, for example, could make themselves less vulnerable or that it would make much difference to their offenders if they were not such an “easy” target.
One might argue that the criminal justice system and criminology shifted the focus from offenders to victims out of necessity. Unable to devise strategies to control crime, the attention is shifted to victims and victim prevention. In both instances, however, the focus continues to be on personal accountability and the actions of individuals while social structural examinations remain rare. Individual level explanations are very popular in the United States. As a society, we tend to endorse the idea that criminals have free will and choose criminality.