Dahnert’s Electronic Radiology Review by Wolfgang Dahnert

By Wolfgang Dahnert

"The booklet describes the sickness entities, radiologic symptoms., in addition to lists of differential diagnosis"--Provided by means of writer.

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Center: the voltage output from a hypothetical photodiode. Bottom: the voltage output from a hypothetical pyroelectric detector. A pyroelectric detector in a PIR module is mounted in a sealed metallic container, as shown in Figure 4-3. The rectangular window in the detector is usually made of silicon, which is opaque to visible wavelengths but transparent to long-wave infrared radiation. Elements The pyroelectric detector used in a PIR contains at least two elements with opposite polarities, connected in series.

Disadvantages of a Hall Effect Sensor • Requires a separate magnet (which must be placed carefully to avoid affecting other components). • Open-collector output typically limited to 20mA or less. • May be vulnerable to magnetic fields. • When sensing an object that comes between the switch and a magnet, only a ferrous object can be used. What Can Go Wrong Optical Sensor Issues Deterioration of LEDs Most object presence sensors depend on infrared LEDs as a light source. An LED has many virtues (discussed in Volume 2), but does tend to suffer from gradual reduction in light output over a period of years.

Industrial indoor lighting may use PIRs that switch the lights on automatically when people enter a room, and then switch the lights off (after a timed delay) when people are no longer detected in the room. The goal is to prevent wastage of energy as a result of employees forgetting to switch the lights off. How It Works A PIR module contains multiple components. Most visible is an array of at least 15 small lenses that focus infrared light from zones in the environment onto a pyroelectric detector, also known as a pyroelectric sensor.

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